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 http://factsaboutyouth.com/posts/homosexual-parenting-is-it-time-for-change

应该接受同性双亲吗?

孩子由同性别双亲抚养,是否与由父母抚养一样好,两者毫无分别?直至最近,相关研究显示答案为「非」。过去十年无论专业健康组织[1]、学界、社会政策研究员,还有媒体都认为,应撤销相关限制,允许同性伴侣抚养孩子。此说牵涉范围广,足以影响跨世代,负责任的倡议者应提出充足且合理证据;但实情并非如此。再者,反有证据显示,在同性恋环境下生活的孩子,其情绪、智性,乃至于身体受害的风险均增加。

生理方面

过去逾三十年的研究均证明,孩子由身生父母抚养、且二人婚姻由爱维系并无大冲突者,最为适宜。在这种环境下长大的孩子,更适应各阶段发展,更肯定其性别身分,学业成绩更佳,情绪问题较小,成长后性格障碍也较少;[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]这部分归因于其生理上的父母、子女关系。[9]

尽管单亲家庭、收养,与再婚,乃为弥补原生家庭缺憾而作的、爱孩子的做法,但在上述环境长大的孩子,所面对挑战比一般孩子更大[9, 10]。单亲父母财政往往较紧绌,时间也较紧张;而且很自然地,孩子分别与身生父母相处的时间必然也较少。有继父或继母的孩子,一方面要与继父母重新建立关系,另方面也难免感到身生父母对配偶不忠。至于领养的孩子,总得面对遭身生父母抛弃的感受,且要应付强烈的寻根渴望。难处并非不能克服,但上述种种挑战,都可能对孩子成长发展带来负面影响。[9, 10]很明显,除了极少数例外,同性双亲对孩子而言必然是不健康的,这等于夺去了他们其中一位、甚至两位身生父母。

孩子需要一父一母

男女天生大不同,基因、荷尔蒙、生理结构等方面之别自不待言,此等生理化学之别,使男女无论在脑结构、心理、甚至学习模式等都不同。[11]因此,父母是全然不同的,对孩子的成长发展亦各有独特贡献。[11, 12, 13]儿童成长发展心理学理论已断定,孩子要能健康成长,母亲角色至为关键。更近期研究亦显示,成长期间若父亲缺席,孩童也受苦。无父的女生在学校表现往往较逊色,性关系会较随便,青少年时期就怀孕的比率也较高。至于无父的男生,则表现懈怠、暴力,具侵略性的比率较高。[12, 13]

父母性别不同,育儿方式也各异,两者有互补作用,并有保护孩子的功效。Erik Erikson是首批心理学家,留意到父爱与母爱在性质上有别;母爱在乎养育与情感表达,倾向无条件爱孩子。相对而言,父亲更关乎期望与肯定。[13]后续研究亦显示,抚养孩子时,父母既高度表达其爱意,同时高度提出对孩子要求,这种方式最有效,「令孩子既有被接纳、与人结连的归属感,也有建立个性与追求独立的动力;单靠男女其中一方,几乎不可能达到这种效果」。[13]

性别之分野,也反映在父母触碰孩子的方式上。母亲常常抚摸孩子,以安慰他,使他冷静下来;父亲则爱在和孩子玩的时候触摸他们,起着刺激、鼓励作用。母亲会屈身和孩子交谈,让他拿主意、作决定;父亲则爱和孩子玩粗野游戏,扮演教导角色,像个教练。父子间常打闹着玩,有助青少年期的男生培养自制能力。[13]

男女之别亦见于父母的管教进路。「父亲管教,倾向坚持,讲规矩和原则;母亲管教,则看孩子反应,会让他讨价还价,视乎孩子的情绪和场合,有商量余地,且常基于对孩子当下情感需要的直觉理解。」[13]因此,父母一起育儿,有助子女调节其与性别相关的性情。男孩偏向理性多于感性,规则过于关系;爱冒险,过于谨慎;讲标准要求,过于同情心。女孩则更在乎情感、关系,做事较谨慎,有同情心。因父母展现了两性的榜样,假以时日,令男孩女孩有着截然不同的价值取向。

同性双亲研究

有些研究指,同性恋双亲养育孩子,其效果由中性至优于普通家庭,然而相关研究在设计上存在缺失,包括非纵向设计问题、受访取样范围太小、取样有预设立场、缺乏控制组、未考虑混淆变项,还有最大的问题在于-全部声称证实虚无假设。[14, 15, 16]因此,这些研究根本不能引以支持同性双亲家庭,以为这对孩子是安全、有好处的。

关于孩子长期在同性双亲养育下的结果,其数据数据虽然不多,但仍引人疑虑。[17]有研究显示,在此种家庭环境成长的孩子更容易有性别混淆问题,较容易参与玩票性质的性行为,长大更倾向认同同性恋者身分。[18, 19, 20, 21, 22]这实在令人关注,因为采取同性恋生活方式的青少年或青成年,其出现心理健康问题比率较高,这包括严重抑郁、焦虑症、行为障碍、物质依赖,尤其容易有自杀倾向。[23]

同性恋生活模式对儿童之危害

最后,研究显示同性恋生活模式令儿童增加各方面风险。同性恋双亲暴力问题,比婚内异性夫妇高二至三倍。[24, 25, 26, 27, 28]再者,同性伴侣比异性夫妇更容易离异,同性结合关系平均只维持二至三年。[29, 30, 31]男性和女性同性恋者滥交情况均一般较严重,其性伴侣众多,所谓的「委身关系」定义也宽松,许多时候同时存在其他性伴。[32, 33, 34, 35, 36]此外,采取同性恋生活模式者,较异性恋者患精神病[37, 38, 39]、滥物[40]、具自杀倾向[41, 42]、短寿[43]等比率都较高。尽管有说上述种种问题原因,在于美国社会给同性恋者压力,但在同性恋更为人接受的其他文化里,上述问题比率依然高企。[44]

总结

总言之,无论传统与科学皆认为,父母因两性生、心理之别,这对孩子而言有保护作用。家庭环境往往影响孩子塑造其性别身分及安全感,培养情绪,甚至学业成就。过去数十年许多社会科学研究文献显示,孩子由婚姻关系正常的身生父母育养,其效果最佳。近年虽有少数研究提倡同性双亲也可养育孩子,但相关研究方式存在严重限制;将孩子置于同性恋生活方式环境下,是冒着重大风险的。按上述论据,美国儿科学院认为,同性恋者养育孩子,无论经领养、助养,或人工受孕方式得子,这种种做法均不适当,且对孩子有害;社会一直以来禁止此种行径有理,改变此例实属危险地不负责任;而上述立场有充足科学印证。

主要作者:Michelle Cretella, MD, FCP 和 Den Trumbull, MD, FCP

原刊载在2004年1月22日

修订于2013年3月

参考数据

3. Kristen Andersen Moore, et.al. “Marriage from a Child’s Perspective: How Does Family Structure Affect Children and What Can We Do about It?” (Washington, D.C.: Child Trends, Research Brief, June 2002) pp.1-2.

5. Sotirios Sarantakos, “Children in Three Contexts: Family, Education, and Social Development,” Children Australia, vol. 21 (1996): 23-31.

6. Jeanne M. Hilton and Esther L. Devall, “Comparison of Parenting and Children’s Behavior in Single-Mother, Single-Father, and Intact Families,” Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 29 (1998): 23-54.

7. Elizabeth Thomson et al., “Family Structure and Child Well-Being: Economic Resources vs. Parental Behaviors,” Social Forces 73 (1994): 221-42.

8. David Popenoe, Life without Father (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996), pp. 144, 146.

9. Glenn Stanton Why Marriage Matters (Colorado Springs: Pinon Press, 1997) p. 97-153.

10. Schneider B, Atteberry A, Owens A. Family Matters: Family Structure and Child Outcomes. Birmingham, AL: Alabama Policy Institute; 2005: 1-42. Available at www.alabamapolicyinstitute.org/PDFs/currentfamilystructure.pdf.

11. Sax, Leonard. Why Gender Matters: What Parents and Teachers Need to Know About the Emerging Science of Sex Differences (New York: Doubleday, 2005).

12. Blankenhorn, David. Fatherless America. (New York: Basic books, 1995).

13. Byrd, Dean. “Gender Complementarity and Child-rearing: Where Tradition and Science Agree,” Journal of Law & Family Studies, University of Utah, Vol. 6 no. 2, 2005.  http://narth.com/docs/gendercomplementarity.html.

14. Robert Lerner, Ph.D., Althea Nagai, Ph.D. No Basis: What the Studies Don’t Tell Us About Same Sex Parenting, Washington DC; Marriage Law Project/Ethics and Public Policy Center, 2001.

15. P. Morgan, P. Morgan Children as Trophies? Examining the Evidence on Same-Sex Parenting, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Christian Institute, 2002.

16. J. Paul Guiliani and Dwight G. Duncan, “Brief of Amici Curiae Massachusetts Family Institute and National Association for the Research and Therapy of Homosexuality,” Appeal to the Supreme Court of Vermont, Docket No. S1009-97CnC.

17. American Academy of Pediatrics, Perrin, EC, and the committee on psychosocial aspects of child and family health. “Technical report: Co parent or Second-Parent Adoption by Same-Sex Parents,” Pediatrics. 109(2002): 343. The Academy acknowledges that the “small, non-representative samples … and the relatively young age of the children suggest somereserve.”

18. F. Tasker and S. Golombok, “Adults Raised as Children in Lesbian Families,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatric Association, 65 (1995): 213.

20. Ibid., pp.127,128.

21. F. Tasker and S. Golombok, “Do Parents Influence the Sexual Orientation of Their Children?” Developmental Psychology 32 (1996): 7.

22. Judith Stacey and Timothy J. Biblarz, “(How) Does the Sexual Orientation of Parents Matter,” American Sociological Review 66 (2001): 174, 179.

23. Judith Stacey and Timothy J. Biblarz, “(How) Does the Sexual Orientation of Parents Matter,” American Sociological Review 66 (2001): 174, 179.

24. Gwat Yong Lie and Sabrina Gentlewarrier, “Intimate Violence in Lesbian Relationships: Discussion of Survey Findings and Practice Implications,” Journal of Social Service Research 15 (1991): 41-59.

25. D. Island and P. Letellier, Men Who Beat the Men Who Love Them: Battered Gay Men and Domestic Violence (New York: Haworth Press, 1991), p. 14.

26. Lettie L. Lockhart et al., “Letting out the Secret: Violence in Lesbian Relationships,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 9 (1994): 469-492.

27. “Violence between Intimates,” Bureau of Justice Statistics Selected Findings, November 1994, p. 2.

28. Health Implications Associated With Homosexuality (Austin: The Medical Institute for Sexual Health, 1999), p. 79.

29. David P. McWhirter and Andrew M. Mattison, The Male Couple: How Relationships Develop (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1984), pp. 252-253.

30. Saghir and E. Robins, Male and Female Homosexuality (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1973), p. 225; L.A. Peplau and H. Amaro, “Understanding Lesbian Relationships,” in Homosexuality: Social, Psychological, and Biological Issues, ed. J. Weinrich and W. Paul (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1982).


31. M. Pollak, “Male Homosexuality,” in Western Sexuality: Practice and Precept in Past and Present Times, ed. P. Aries and A. Bejin, translated by Anthony Forster (New York, NY: B. Blackwell, 1985), pp. 40-61, cited by Joseph Nicolosi in Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality (Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc., 1991), pp. 124, 125.

32. A. P. Bell and M. S. Weinberg, Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978), pp. 308, 309; See also A. P. Bell, M. S. Weinberg, and S. K. Hammersmith, Sexual Preference (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981).

33. Paul Van de Ven et al., “A Comparative Demographic and Sexual Profile of Older Homosexually Active Men,” Journal of Sex Research 34 (1997): 354.

34. A. A. Deenen, “Intimacy and Sexuality in Gay Male Couples,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, 23 (1994): 421-431.

35. “Sex Survey Results,” Genre (October 1996), quoted in “Survey Finds 40 percent of Gay Men Have Had More Than 40 Sex Partners,” Lambda Report, January 1998, p. 20.

36. Marie Xiridoui, et al., “The Contribution of Steady and Casual Partnerships to the Incidence of HIV infection among Homosexual Men in Amsterdam,” AIDS 17 (2003): 1029-1038。注:据此项研究,所谓的「稳定关系」者,除固定的性伴外,每年平均仍有八名其他「非正式」性伴。(页1032)

37. J. Bradford et al., “National Lesbian Health Care Survey: Implications for Mental Health Care,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 62 (1994): 239, cited in Health Implications Associated with Homosexuality, p. 81.

38. Theo G. M. Sandfort, et al., “Same-sex Sexual Behavior and Psychiatric Disorders,” Archives of General Psychiatry 58 (January 2001): 85-91.

39. Bailey, J. M. Commentary: Homosexuality and mental illness. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 56 (1999): 876-880。作者指,「相关研究参考了有关同性恋与心理学关联、可能最详尽的出版数据,都有着不乐观的结论-即同性恋者在某几种情绪问题上属高危一族,包括自杀倾向、严重抑郁、焦虑问题、行为障碍,倚靠尼古丁等…。」

40. Joanne Hall, “Lesbians Recovering from Alcoholic Problems: An Ethnographic Study of Health Care Expectations,” Nursing Research 43 (1994): 238-244.

41. R. Herrell et al., “Sexual Orientation and Suicidality, Co-twin Study in Adult Men,” Archives of General Psychiatry 56 (1999): 867-874.

42. Vickie M. Mays, et al., “Risk of Psychiatric Disorders among Individuals Reporting Same-sex Sexual Partners in the National Comorbidity Survey,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 91 (June 2001): 933-939.

43. Robert S. Hogg et al., “Modeling the Impact of HIV Disease on Mortality in Gay and Bisexual Men,” International Journal of Epidemiology 26 (1997): 657.

44. Sandfort, T.G.M.; de Graaf, R.; Bijl, R.V.; Schnabel. Same-sex sexual behavior and psychiatric disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 58 (2001): 85-91.